Panch Mahapurusha Yoga is an important combination in Vedic astrology.
This Yoga (combination) is formed due to specific positions(planets in exalted or own signs) of five different planets, combination of certain rashis(signs) and four bhavas (houses) in kendra(quadrant). This Yoga is created by any of the five different planets, Mars, Mercury, Jupiter, Venus or Saturn. Each planet is having different characteristics and give results according to.
The five Panch Mahapurusha Yogas (combinations) formed by five planets are known as:
1.Ruchaka, 2.Bhadra 3.Hamsa,4. Malavya and 5. Shasha Yoga.
According to Phala Deepika, the person with one such yoga will be fortunate, with two such yogas will be equal to a king, with with three yogas he will be a king, four yogas makes him sovereigns (emperor) and with five such yogas superior than an emperor.
 Ruchaka Yoga (Mars): Ruchaka yoga is formed when strong Mars is posited in one of the four houses,1st, 4th, 7th or 10th house(quadrant) from ascendant, in its own sign(Aries or Scorpio) or in exalted sign(Capricorn), in an individual’s astrological chart. The native will be wealthy,very famous,intelligent, full of enthusiasm and energy. A person born with Ruchaka Yoga will have graceful appearance, very attractive physique and impressive personality and he will be long lived.
One born in Ruchaka yoga has a longish face, is over zealous, radiant but polite, extremely powerful and with beautiful eyebrows. He has black hair, is of refined tastes, fond of battlefields and of dark complexion. He is a conqueror, intelligent.He can also be head of theives, of cruel temperament and slender of thighs. He has the signs of Veena (string instrument), Vajra (a type of sword), Dhanush (Bow), Pasha (noose), Chakra (disc) and Vrishabha (bull) signs in his hands. He is a worshipper of Brahmins, expert in Mantras for abhichara. He rules over Vindhya and Sahyadri regions and attains swarga by weapon or fire (dies on account of one of these reasons).
Example: Aishwarya Rai Bachchan, Sachin Tendulkar, Sania Mirza, Rahul Dravid, Akshay Kumar
 Bhadra Yoga (Mercury): Mercury represents wisdom, intelligence, education, intellect, speech and business. Bhadra yoga is formed when strong Mercury is posited in one of the four houses, 1st ,4th ,7th or 10th house from ascendant, in its own sign(Gemini or Virgo) or exalted sign(Virgo), in an individual’s birth chart. The native will be tall, attractive, learned, intelligent, intellectual, wealthy, good orator,sharp-witted, helpful, majestic and very famous with a successful career, at an early age. He/she will be of lustful and self indulgent nature and live a luxurious and long life.
The jatakaof Bhadra yoga is possessed of the radiance of a lion and has a well developed chest. His gait is slow and majestic, like an elephant. He has long and thickarms, is learned, intelligent and skilled in Yoga. He is of Satwa guna, has elegant feet, good moustaches and beard. He is of lustful nature (kamI/kämé)and hasmarks of Shankha (conch shell),Gada (mace), Shara (arrow), Elephant, Flag and Hala (plough) on his hands and feet. Possessed of a well shaped nose, he is an expert on weaponary, has black hair, is of independent nature and is protector of his family.
Example: Lal Bahadur Shastri(Former PMO), Bill Gates, Elbert Einstein, Dr. Rajendraprasad
 Hamsa Yoga(Jupiter): Jupiter represents intellect, brilliance, education,discipline and spirituality. Hamsa yoga is formed when strong Jupiter is posited in one of the four houses,1st ,4th ,7th or 10th house from ascendant(lagna), in exalted sign(Cancer) or in its own sign(Sagittarius or Pisces),in a native’s birth chart. The person will have a sharp and elevated nose, good features with tall, handsome and attractive personality, he/she will be fair,very graceful, intelligent, intellectual, famous, wealthy, religious, studious, popular, charitable and gentle in nature. The native will have trouble with teeth, sometimes may be broken at an early age, if afflicted by malefic planets. A woman having Hamsa Yoga with non-afflicted and strong Jupiter, will be lucky for her husband or married life, as Jupiter represents husband in a woman’s birth chart, for exampleMadhuri Dikshit. The native will enjoy a long life.
A jatakaof Hamsa yoga has a voice like that of Hamsa (swan), is fair with elevated nose and beautiful face. He has Kapha humor, eyes that are brown like honey, red nails and is possessed of a high level of intelligence. He has well formed cheek a round head and with beautiful feet he becomes a King. His palms and feet carry the marks of fish, goad (ankusha), Bow, Conch shell, Lotus, bed (khatwanga) etc. He is lusty and his lust is difficult to satisfy by his wife
Example: Jayalalitha, Madhuri Dikshit, Benjamin Franklin
 Malavya Yoga(Venus): Venus represents luxury, comfort and marital bliss. Malavya yoga is formed when Venus is posited in quadrant
from ascendant(lagna), in one of four houses,1st ,4th 7thor 10th ,in its own sign(Taurus or Libra) or exalted sign(Pisces), in a person’s astrological birth chart. The native will have beautiful face with large eyes and very attractive personality. He/she will be famous, fortunate, own many vehicles and live a prosperous, luxurious and successful life. The native will be in contact with many women, in his life but this does not mean his character is questionable. If this combination (yoga) is afflicted by malefic planets, the native will have bad or unpredictable character. A native having Malavya Yoga, with strong Venus in his/her birth chart will get a very loving and supporting spouse, as Venus represents marital bliss, in a person’s birth chart.
-Example: Pundit Jawaharlal Nehru, John F Kennedy, Mahatma Gandhi.
 Shasha Yoga(Saturn): Saturn represents sorrow, obstacles and adversity. Shasha yoga is formed when Saturn is posited in one of the four houses,1st ,4th ,7th or 10th house from ascendant, in its own sign(Capricorn or Aquarius) or exalted sign(Libra), in an individual’s astrological birth chart. The native will rise to a great height but the progress will be very slow and the life will not be without troubles. A person having Shasha Yoga with strong Saturn in his/her birth chart, being a deep thinker would positively implement the ideas to bring them to reality and successfully start a new venture. The native will be tall, good looking with attractive physique and will have many servants, factories and lead a prosperous and wealthy life. If this combination is afflicted by malefic planets, the person will be a bad character (may be even a robber). He will not hesitate in stealing or enjoying others' wealth.
-Example: Jimmy Carter(Former U.S.A. President ), Margaret Thatcher.
What we have understood till now is the different Panch Mahapurush yoga and their effects in native's life .
However these Yogas may not get fructified in many of the Jatakas and as an astrologer you should not get confused by this.
If we look at the shloka given by the sage Parashara , we find that the sage does say that the planets have to be possessed of strength.
Each of the planets, causing any variation of the Pancha Mahapurusha yoga, will be generally treated to be strong on account of occupation of both a kendra and own or exaltation rasi therefore the meaning of strength, referred to here by the sages, needs to be understood in proper perspective. Since each of the planets achieve digbala in different kendra as are they bereft of it in others, itstands to reason that a planetconferring a Pancha Maha Purusha yoga, will not have same amount of strengthwhile posited in any of the 4 kendrasthat it can occupy. Again we find that the planets involved have ownership of one male and one female rasi and they are themselves either male, female or eunuch. We also know that though shubha planets give greater shubha results when they attain strength, not all ashubha or papa planets have elevated malfeasance as a result of gaining strength. Saturn is said to give least malefic results, when he is endowed with strength and greater malefic results when bereft of strength.
When grahas are strongin a horoscope, related bhavas and their indications (like Atma, Mana, Satwa, Vacha, Gyaana, Veerya and sorrow, as well as the benefic and malefic nature of the relevant grahas) are realized with more and more strength. If the grahas become weak the related indications suffer. In case of Shani reverse is true.
Guru (Jupiter) is said to distort or harm one of the indications of the bhava he occupies,so in strength, he might harm the bhava occupied though he will give excellent results of the bhavas that he aspects and good results of the other indications of the bhava occupied.
Guru occupying lagna in Lord Rama’s horoscope made him get banished to forests by his father, Guru in 3rd bhava caused the King Bali being sent to Patala (abode of Asuras-netherland under water) by lord Vishnu, 4thbhava occupied by Guru in King Harishchandra’s chart took away his kingdom, Dushshaasana (one of theKauravas in Mahabharata) tried to strip Draupadi’s clothes on account of Guru occupying 6th bhava in her chart, King Ravana died (in war with Lord Rama) on account of Guru occupying 8thbhava, Guru occupying the 10th bhava in King Duryodhana’s chart resulted in his death at the hands of Bhima in Mahabharata,and Pandavas were sent to forest on account of their defeat in Dyuta (a typeof gambling game of the Kings)on account of occupation of 12th bhava in Yudhishthira’s chart.
So the interpretation of the Pancha Mahapurusha yogas will have to be modified taking into consideration these additional factors. Next are the injunctionsabout some of the planets being incapable of giving (beneficial) results in certain kendra positions. The two benefic that come to mind are Mercury in the 4th and Venus in the 7th bhava.
Budha in the 4th house, Guru in 5th house and Shukra in 7th house, cause trouble to those houses. Shani gives good results in the 8th house.Similarly Mars in 7th, Saturn in Lagna, Mercury in the 7th bhava are said to be in Marana sthanas if aspected by or associated with malefics or grahas in debility.
For Jupiter the 3rd house, Mars the 7th, Saturn the Lagna, Rahu the 9th, Moon the 8th, Sun the 12th, Mercury the 7th and for Venus the 6th house are called the marana sthana. If these planets, placed there, are also aspected or conjoinedby a malefic or debilitated planet, indication of these sthanas are harmed. One should understand that if the planet so aspecting/conjunct is only malefic some bad indication of the Marana bhava are experienced, and when the malefic is also an enemy of, or in debilitation, more harm to the indication of the Marana sthana house indicated.
So these grahas, in those sthanas (house/place), may again not deliver the results of PanchaMahapurusha yoga, regarding making one a king over large tract of land in a chart, if aspected or conjunct malefics. Thus we find many reasons that could result in the Pancha Mahapurusha yoga not getting fructified.